The estimates in this paper focused on the production side of the economy, with no consideration for the demand side of the economy which will also affect economic activity of Canadian firms. The consumer spending and consumption pattern will likely be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Business investment may shift towards new opportunities such as AI, e-commerce, green technologies. The exports will also likely to be affected.
The Canada-U.S. border includes four of the five Great Lakes, many transboundary rivers and lakes, major airsheds, and migratory routes for wildlife species. The two countries have a long history of close cooperation and negotiation on environmental issues due to their integrated economy and common ecosystems. For example, Canada and the U.S. are currently negotiating to modernize the Columbia River Treaty.
In the second essay, Alexandra Lai tackles some of the problems raised by Chant; in particular, the difficulty of understanding the nature of crises. She reviews a range of theoretical approaches that have been pursued in order to understand the potential instabilities in domestic financial systems.
The fourth essay, by Fred Daniel, provides a context for more general discussions of the role of policy in promoting financial stability, by providing an overview of the current institutional arrangements that condition financial behaviour in Canada and how the Bank of Canada interacts with other agencies who share responsibility for financial stability.
Fishing, furs, and gold rushes are all parts of Canada's rich economic history. When students learn and write about Canada's economic history, they can examine how the growth of a nation and modern technology impacted its economy. Additionally, students can research the ways politics, globalization, and environmental concerns have shaped the Canadian economy in recent years.
When choosing Canadian history topics for an assignment, try to select a focus for your paper from the get-go. Find an engaging event or perspective to write about and research it thoroughly. For that, check our list of Canadian topics for a school or college paper prepared by our team. Besides, see tips on writing your essay on the subject.
Consider taking this step even before you start writing. Why? It helps you to see your essay (and your arguments) even before you wrote it. It also prevents you from losing sight of your evidence. You can use other essays as your essay template.
This is IvyPanda's free database of academic paper samples. It contains thousands of paper examples on a wide variety of topics, all donated by helpful students. You can use them for inspiration, an insight into a particular topic, a handy source of reference, or even just as a template of a certain type of paper. The database is updated daily, so anyone can easily find a relevant essay example.
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Innis laid the basis for scholarship that looked at the social sciences from a distinctly Canadian point of view. As the head of the University of Toronto's political economy department, he worked to build up a cadre of Canadian scholars so that universities would not continue to rely as heavily on British or American-trained professors unfamiliar with Canada's history and culture. He was successful in establishing sources of financing for Canadian scholarly research.
In October 1913, Innis started classes at McMaster University (then in Toronto). McMaster was a natural choice for him because it was a Baptist university and many students who attended Woodstock College went there. McMaster's liberal arts professors encouraged critical thinking and debate. Innis was especially influenced by James Ten Broeke [Wikidata], the university's one-man philosophy department. Ten Broeke posed an essay question that Innis pondered for the rest of his life: \"Why do we attend to the things to which we attend?\"
While at Chicago, Innis was exposed to the ideas of Thorstein Veblen, the iconoclastic thinker who drew on his deep knowledge of philosophy and economics to write scathing critiques of contemporary thought and culture. Veblen had left Chicago years before, but his ideas were still strongly felt there. Years later, in an essay on Veblen, Innis praised him for waging war against \"standardized static economics.\"
Harold Innis is considered the leading founder of a Canadian school of economic thought known as the staples theory. It holds that Canada's culture, political history and economy have been decisively shaped by the exploitation and export of a series of \"staples\" such as fur, fish, wood, wheat, mined metals and fossil fuels. Innis theorized that the reliance on exporting natural resources made Canada dependent on more industrially advanced countries and resulted in periodic disruptions to economic life as the international demand for staples rose and fell; as the staple itself became increasingly scarce; and, as technological change resulted in shifts from one staple to others. Innis pointed out, for example, that as furs became scarce and trade in that staple declined, it became necessary to develop and export other staples such as wheat, potash and especially lumber. The export of the new staples was made possible through improved transportation networks that included first canals and later railways.
In 1920, Innis joined the department of political economy at the University of Toronto. He was assigned to teach courses in commerce, economic history and economic theory. He decided to focus his scholarly research on Canadian economic history, a hugely neglected subject, and he settled on the fur trade as his first area of study. Furs had brought French and English traders to Canada, motivating them to travel west along the continent's interlocking lake and river systems to the Pacific coast. Innis realized that he had to search out archival documents to understand the history of the fur trade and also travel the country himself gathering masses of firsthand information and accumulating what he called \"dirt\" experience.
Innis's study of the effects of interconnected lakes and rivers on Canadian development and European empire sparked his interest in the complex economic and cultural relationships between transportation systems and communications. During the 1940s, Innis also began studying pulp and paper, an industry of central importance to the Canadian economy. The research provided an additional crossover point from his work on staple products to his communications studies. Biographer Paul Heyer writes that Innis \"followed pulp and paper through its subsequent stages: newspapers and journalism, books and advertising. In other words, from looking at a natural resource-based industry he turned his attention to a cultural industry in which information, and ultimately knowledge, was a commodity that circulated, had value, and empowered those who controlled it.\"
Western civilization could be saved, Innis argued, only by recovering the balance between space and time. For him, that meant reinvigorating the oral tradition within universities while freeing institutions of higher learning from political and commercial pressures. In his essay, A Plea for Time, he suggested that genuine dialogue within universities could produce the critical thinking necessary to restore the balance between power and knowledge. Then, universities could muster the courage to attack the monopolies that always imperil civilization.
The era of the \"Dirty Thirties\" with its mass unemployment, poverty and despair gave rise to new Canadian political movements. In Alberta, for example, the radio evangelist William \"Bible Bill\" Aberhart led his populist Social Credit party to victory in 1935. Three years earlier in Calgary, Alberta, social reformers had founded a new political party, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF). It advocated democratic socialism and a mixed economy with public ownership of key industries. Frank Underhill, one of Innis's colleagues at the University of Toronto was a founding member of the CCF. Innis and Underhill had both been members of an earlier group at the university that declared itself \"dissatisfied with the policies of the two major [political] parties in Canada\" and that aimed at \"forming a definite body of progressive opinion.\" In 1931, Innis presented a paper to the group on \"Economic Conditions in Canada\", but he later recoiled from participating in party politics, denouncing partisans like Underhill as \"hot gospellers.\"
In 1945, Innis spent nearly a month in the Soviet Union where he had been invited to attend the 220th anniversary celebrations marking the founding of the country's Academy of Sciences. Later, in his essay Reflections on Russia, he mused about the differences between the Soviet \"producer\" economy and the West's \"consumer\" ethos:
[A]n economy which emphasizes consumer's goods is characterized by communication industries largely dependent on advertising and by constant efforts to reach the largest number of readers or listeners; an economy emphasizing producer's goods is characterized by communications industries largely dependent on government support. As a result of this contrast, a common public opinion in Russia and the West is hard to achieve.
In 1946, Innis was elected president of the Royal Society of Canada, the country's senior body of scientists and scholars. The same year, he served on the Manitoba Royal Commission on Ad